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Muslim Scholarship in Comparative Religion in Mughal Period

Islam had reached Indian sub-continent long before the emergence of Muslim dynasties. Islam deeply ingrained in society by its religious and moral values. After the establishment o



Islam had reached Indian sub-continent long before the emergence of Muslim dynasties. Islam deeply ingrained in society by its religious and moral values. After the establishment of Muslim political power through various Muslim regimes, Muslim religious thoughts and practices began to penetrate in an elaborate, articulate, deliberate and organized form.Muslim religious scholars and saints have an important role in the pervasion of Muslim culture and faith in India. Their exemplary moral and righteous personality, humble in nature, interactions in regional dialect of people, their nobility, magnanimous, altruist, and sympathetic approach obtained reputation and reverence for their faith from native indigenous people. Thus, Islam had a pertinent repercussion in Indian life and thought.

Indians have been envisaged the frequent onslaught and savagery of Muslim invaders. They desecrated and looted the holy places and sacrosancts of non-Muslims, particularly Hindus. This aroused a bitter resentment against Muslim rulers as jingoistic cannibals, leaving a humongous populace in lurch for mass starvation by their consecutive destructive military charges.

Moreover, India has a characteristic of successful resistance over invaders as their unflinching will and vigour never let invasions to be long last in this land. The mighty series of Delhi Sultanate ruled for centuries but their policies of fierce persecution and religious intolerance encountered the stiff resistance, having the consequences of annihilation of various regimes. Throughout the history, India promoted only the policies of peace and tranquility with successful coexistence of diversification of cultures, still boasting on that belonging.

The basic element of failure was the inability of Muslim rulers to view society as a wide and broad organized community with cultural diversity. They could provide only temporary solutions to challenges to avert the inevitable crises. Nevertheless, the Muslim rulers were all well talented, able and vigorous, powerful, and mighty suzerains and effectively claimed against the various adverse forces for the establishment of the strong administration.

In 1526, Babar founded the great Mughal Empire after the successful campaign in the battle field of Panipath, defeating Ibrahim Lodhi, the incumbent sultan of Lodhi dynasty, the last regime in Delhi Sultanate and ruled two centuries in powerful motion and staggering for a century. At the golden time it covered 4 millions square kilometers, including different types of masses in religion, culture, clan, creed and caste under their jurisdiction.

Mughal rulers pursued the toleration and forbearance and never inhaled the policy of fierce persecution and religious intolerance towards their majority Hindu subjects as they had seen its tragic aftermaths in the early Muslim dynasties. They recognized, considered and allowed non-Muslims subjects to practice their religious customs and duties as fundamental rights of their citizens. They adopted and implemented the religious policies of tolerance to clung over throne as they struggling for their survival and existence in India. In succinct, their unique comparative religious perspectives were to maintain their administration without denial from indigenous people. They became successful in terms of their aims as adoption of new policy of secular and pluralistic ideology.

After ascending in the throne, first Mughal emperor Babar expressed his tolerance towards non-Muslims. All Mughal rulers, except Aurangzeb followed the religious tolerance as they convinced that the faith and believe have no space with the state of administration.9Akbar followed the policy of religious tolerance to the extreme extension of liberalism and moulded the religions as a synthesis with the new syncretic religion, imbibing the moral. He granted full term of freedom for Hindus to practice their religion. He used to participate in Hindu festivals. He promoted for empathy with Hindus to avoid from butchery and hunting in some time period. However, his religious vagaries aroused the bitter resentment from different quarters and condemned orthodox scholars.

Jahangir, as a successor of Akbar, maintained the extreme liberal policies of his predecessor. He gave equal freedom and privileges to Muslim, Hindu and Christian subjects. He also observed the Hindu celebrations and festivals. However, he wisely avoided the vagaries of his father. Shahjahan was more orthodox and religious personality. Thus, he retained the balance between orthodox and liberal traditions. He adopted the policies of religious tolerance and followed his forerunners for appointments of Hindus and other non-believers in army and administration in terms of egalitarian concepts over subjects for peaceful coexistence and well fare of society.

The indigenous Hindus were well orchestrated to fight for their autonomy, if their freedom curtailed or feel inferior under Muslim rulers. For that sake, diagnosing the pulsation of the non-believer subjects, Mughal emperors provide unique policies of tolerance with the provisions of secular, liberal and welfare government. In terms of tolerance, reverence, considerations and unique coexistence with honour, Hindus recognized the Mughal rulers and worked in unison to strengthen the dynasty and well beings of subjects. The far sight of Mughal emperors regarding religious tolerance and honour, giving rights to non-Muslims equivalent to Muslims, resulted in the stability in administration, politics and victories in military campaigns.

The comparative policies of Mughal rulers were based on their political motive, personal aggrandizement and welfare of society along with the assurance of blinding allegiance towards Mughal administration. The appeasement seems as a talisman to attain the loyalty. The Mughal dynasty acquired their aims by indulgence of their non-believers. However, their governance has a broad sense of sincere inspiration of a welfare society. Under their tenure, people enjoyed high level of freedom at will.


There is hardly sufficient evidences are available over Persian-Muslim writings between sixteenth and twentieth century, describing other religions than Islam, in general, under Mughal tenure. However, Dara Shukoh seems as the most celebrated icon of comparative religion in Mughal period, ventured for the rapprochement between two divergent religions and cultures, Islam and Hinduism. The biography, works and influence of comparative scholars from sixteenth to twentieth century are not available.

However, this work provides the scholars in general in the Mughal period from 1526 to 1857. To suit the broad meaning of the comparative scholarship, a Muslim study over other religions can be regarded as the comparative study and one who deals with it is a comparative scholar. To more precise, the comparative religion or scholarship can be defined as one who studies over other religions other than his own. Moreover, it includes the life, works and contributions of comparatively oriented scholars. For the purposeful evaluation and the successful introduction of South Indian scholars to the discipline of comparative religion, a random selection of the scholars has been made from the very different fields of life. Furthermore, the selection was made following the mere criterion of the mentioned scholars’ comparative orientation, orchestration and contribution to the field of comparative religion.

Jacques Waardenburg, the renowned author of Muslim Perceptions of Other Religions, a unique collection related to the Muslim comparative scholars over other religions than Islam. Though, he is not aware, ignorant or left behind the pages over the praiseworthy deeds of south Indian comparative scholars to include in his exemplary work as it described only the north Indian eruditions. However, this work highlights on various versatile scholars with the mere criterion of their comparative orientation whether it is from the Southern or Northern regions of India. To moot over each scholar, life, unique exemplary comparative perspectives, influence and works has been described as far as blow by blow account as sufficient for the beneficial evaluation of the Indian Muslim comparative scholarships in Mughal period.

This work will rake the life of scholars up and their backgrounds for their nourishment and inspiration to this field. The analysis of comparative concepts of scholars is the vital part of this work as it consists after the precise investigation of their life, works and contributions.


Abul Fazl was a prominent scholar in Akbar's reign. He played a key role in the promotion of comparative religion, to ensemble the people under a single platform. He was the ideological and intellectual power house behind Akbar to support his extreme liberal perspectives. He transformed the dominance of the traditional orthodox scholars of Akbar court to the new liberal elite scholars to support the liberal religious vagarious tendencies of Akbar. He was the exponent of new values, dominated in the politics, religion, society and culture in the Akbar's reign.

He was the intellectual sagacious acumen behind the syncretic religion of Akbar, named Din-i-Ilāhī and its culmination was the proclamation of Akbar for a new syncretic religion under the encouragement of Abul Fazl. It led to the religious and moral deviation in India. The first Islamic crisis in India occurred during the reign of Akbar, through his political motives, on the basis of his personal religious views. For that sake, he had a great intellectual help and encouragement of two brothers, Abul Fazl and Faizi. Thus, he orchestrated and formed a new eclectic religion, Din-i- Ilāhī.

Abul Fazl promoted the comparative religion to ensure the people united with same emotions. The consequence of his extreme comparative religious tendency was the Akbar's syncretic religion. However his contribution towards the comparative religion must be underlined as even his significant interventions were made for the successful implementations of comparative religious trends though it possess an eccentric modulation of process from conventional orthodox puritanical doctrines and perceptions.

Life Sketch

Abul Fazl, the second son of Shaikh Mubarak, a well known religious scholar, was born in Agra on the evening of 14 January,1551.His ancestral lineage stretches to the Quraish, the sacred tribe of prophet Muḥammed (PBUH).

He had a great intellectual instinct, an accurate memory and mind power. He was one year old, began to speak clearly. His elementary education started with Arabic, he able to read and write when he was a child of five years old. The unique intellectual atmosphere of his house helped him to obtain a large stuff of knowledge. By the age of seven, he could amass the much of the conventional learning but he lack the interest of traditional courses of instructions. Although, the intellectual knowledge that he attained, couldn't satisfy his curiosity. 

He was an ardent student. Sometimes he would engage in reading and studying for two or three days before he would eat something. People were astonished by his devotion to the knowledge. When people asked for that, he would used to say that a sick man will shun and abjure food, why should people be amazed if one abjures food while increase one’s power of spirit and intellect.

However, he was not satisfied with his knowledge and couldn't get an emotional contentment through his vast knowledge that he graced with. He used to leave house and seek spiritual satisfaction to quench the quest of his restive emotions. His father was concerned over his intellectual frenzy to obtain the spiritual healings. Thus, he conceived to send his son to Akbar's court where his brother Faizi serves the king. He believed that the best place to introduce and implement new rebellious idea in society and strengthen the faith, was the royal court.

The psychological tensions began to disturb Abu Fazl from his twenty. It was not possible to encourage him to became an ascetic or control him in his father’s traditional and conventional educational enterprises. The only way to make his intellectual vitality and ideological satisfaction is to send him to Akbar’s court who ornate a likewise mind in religious affairs.

Abul Fazl Meets Akbar

After the conquest of Gujarat, Akbar returned to Fatehpur Sikri, his capital, on Wednesday 3 June, 1573. The important personalities of state came to congratulate him including Ulema and SÅ«fis, scholars and sages. Thus, Shaikh Mubarak, the father of Abul Fazl made his debut, first appearance. At prima facia, the unique style of congratulation was pleased Akbar and honoured him with gifts.

Somehow, Akbar knew the fame of Abul Fazl, the eldest son of Shaikh Mubarak, as a poet. Akbar was planning to besiege Chitor in September, 1567. He summoned to Abul Fazl to reach in his presence. He fetched there by overcoming numerous obstacles from the enemies of Mubarak family. After a much labored painstaking journey to get Akbar’s address, he began to serve in Akbar's court.

In 31 March, 1574, Akbar arrived in Agra to strengthen the royal garrison for the expedition to Bengal. At Agra, Abul Fazl took an advantage to present him his commentary on the Kursi (knowledge). By hearing his compositions Akbar was satisfied and showed his interest. But the meeting was a short for a while and his contact with the emperor were cut down when Akbar left for campaign.

After the expedition Akbar sought Abul Fazl, Faizi wrote him to join the emperor. But the lack of money for journey became a challenge to get Akbar. At Ajmer, Akbar asked again for Abul Fazl, Faizi mentioned his brother's interest to serve the Imperial court. At Fatehpur Sikri, Abul Fazl once again met with the emperor Akbar the Great and presented a commentary on fath (success) to praise Akbar's conquests. 

Thus, Abul Fazl entered to imperial court and gradually his influence grew up over Akbar. Until, there is no need of his formal appointment at any offices and administration as he occupied an internal position as secretary of state and private secretary and managed a great power than a vakÄ«l or vizier, in spite of its authority presented as the most influential person in Akbar. 

Comparative Perspectives

Akbar was a traditional orthodox practical Sunni follower until 1575. The relation with the Shaikh Mubarak and his sons altered his religious and ideological views.Abul Fazl's influence increased in Akbar while his relations between the traditional orthodox scholars withered away. His overwhelming intervention was a challenge before the orthodox elite scholars of Akbar's court. They couldn't get a suitable and satisfied reply and explanation to Abul Fazl's liberal perceptions.

Abul Fazl was not satisfied with religion from childhood and he wished to travel other nations to study Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Christianity and other religions. But his dream could not make to reality for he entered to the court of Akbar and engaged in the inevitable process of governance. He served the court with liberal aspects. Akbar shared his doubts related to the religious matters. This encouraged Abul Fazl to ensemble the scholars and religious works from in and out of nation. However, this vast knowledge couldn't satisfy his scepticism and doubts related to the ideological perspectives. Thus, he adopted the materialism giving importance to rationalism.

He condemned and vilified the religious evidence that put forth to explain his doubts in religion and ideologies. He obtained the non-Islamic religions and philosophy and mooted a new theory of coexistence with peace and tranquility. He was imbued with the spirit of rationalism and intellectual intuition as the source for his tolerance for his cherished dream of peaceful coexistence within extreme divergent communities. He encouraged the subjects to hang on their religion with the spirit of their faith and accept other doctrines without hatred, leaving others their life with livelihoods, not to undermine their beliefs and practices. He supported other religions while criticized the narrow-mind and bigotry. He promoted the liberal outlook in religion and reminded Muslims not to be a fanatic.

Through the grim determination over liberal aspects of religion, he denied and confronted with the views of orthodox Sunni Ulemas in different occasion. He developed a religion to make the people integrated, as fraudulent shrewd statesman, for the various religions must not be a challenge to the throne. His religious concepts were bounded with the political purposes. The loyalty towards emperor shouldn’t have been followed by a particular religion that pursues the emperor. This would compel others to abandon their allegiance on the basis of ideology. In return of the loyalty of subjects, the emperor will be duty bound to protect them and ensure justice and equality. These principles attracted the men of different talents, scholars, administrators and statesmen to the Mughal service leading the empire to the admiration and reverence from in and out of nations. This made a great reputation to Mughal Empire.

His political and religious adventurism was an experiment of offering an equal opportunities to all class of people without reckoning religion, caste or creed. He supported the content of tolerance of Akbar towards other religions with a positive ethical justification having the equality between masses to strengthen the empire and ensure the peace and tranquility, eradicating the whimsical bigotry and fanaticism.

He expressed a considerable interest in the discussions and practices of Zoroastrians, Christians, Hindus and other different religions. His intellectual curiosity and spiritual motives motivated to explore the different religious systems and practices seriously. With his ideological aspect, Akbar turned to inculcate the rituals and practices of various religions. The tragic end of his spiritual and ideological adventurism of both Akbar and Abul Fazl was the formation of new syncretic religion, named Din-i-IlāhÄ«. Through this they dreamt and expected the integration of masses in a perfect applicable ideology of peaceful coexistence with liberal perceptions.

But the new syncretic religion perished in the bud, suffuse to say, nip in the bud and neglected equally by Hindus and Muslims. It was not stipulated in his syncretic religion to abjure from the accepted religion but to avoid the orthodox forms of its ideologies. People must practice the religion with a free will. 

The intellectual and scholarly works of Abul Fazl will guide the people who believe in the value of broad and general humanitarian outlook and recognize the dangers of narrow mind of prejudice and self-satisfaction to ensure the communal harmony and religious amity. 

The End of Abul Fazl


The intellectual and religious adventurism of Abul Fazl obtained an adverse effect of enmity from people, court scholars and elites. The Ulemās proclaimed him as murthad, a believer who lost Islam. The scholars were unable to beat him in debates by his intellectual capacity. He adopted the materialistic ideology. Thus his every stance was became an object to the increasing hatred from both royal elites and religious scholars.

He was killed by a robber as it was committed in accordance with the order of Jahangir, son of Akbar. His physical remaining was exposed to great insult. In 1600, prince SalÄ«m, fairly known as Jahangir, put a stiff resistance to Akbar. He conveyed his grievances to his most beloved friend and mentor, Abul Fazl while he was in Deccan. He was approaching to Akbar to console and help by giving a befitting solution, on enroute to Agra, at Narwar in Gwalior. He was brutally killed by Bheer Singh, Rajput elite of Orkha, by the Support of prince SalÄ«m in 1602. The assassination of Abul Fazl was an unexpected blow to Akbar .He mourned and was not seen in public arena for three days. However, he couldn’t find the murderers of Abul Fazl. In 1605 after the death of Akbar, prince SalÄ«m succeeded him as great Mughal emperor in the title of Jahangir. After his coronation, gave promotion to his henchman Bheer Singh, the murderer of Abul Fazl.


Abul Fazl was a versatile scholar. He composed the poems of praise on Akbar on different occasions to cajole him as a powerful element to fetch the positive inclination and influence. He had some works in poems and letters but majority of his collections faced an ill treatment for extinction. Although some of his works survived. Akbar Nama seems as his magnum opus. Sawanih Akbari, Maktabāt- i -Allami and Munājāth are some prominent works related to his letters and poems. Akbar Nama is the most celebrated work of Abul Fazl as it conveys the lights of comparative concepts of peaceful coexistence within extreme divergent cultures.

Akbar Nama

Akbar Nama is the magnum opus of Abul Fazl. He composed this work with a long period of analysis and editing in 1551-1602, in Persian language. It describes the blow by blow accounts of administration, army, social and religious situations of Akbar’s reign. It is a systematic annual recounting of the events for forty seven years of Akbar’s reign.

The  first part of  Akbar Nama was submitted to Akbar in 1598.However AiniAkbari, considered as the third part of the Akbar Nama, was presented in 1593. Akbar Nama describes the ancestry of Akbar from Timur along with the explanation of his governance. It is an ultimate articulated work corroborated with contemporary realities. Akbar Nama provide a rare collection of Mughal Persian paintings. The herculean task of paintings was completed by the mutual collaboration of numerous painters from India and Persia. 117 paintings illustrated in the manuscript are keeping in the Victoria and Albert museum. However, the core of this work expresses the ultimate legitimacy of Abul Fazl towards Akbar. Although, Akbar Nama is an authenticated work related to the Akbar’s reign.


Sir Seyyid Aḥmed Khan considered as a charismatic social reformer. He figured out for social welfare through the systematic scientific and rational patterns of education. The ultimate aim of his educational innovation was a remedy for the sidelined backward society to enter the mains streams, eradicating the prevailing pathetic situations and pecking up of community. The orchestration for the purpose faced bitter sweet responses. He became an object to extol and hatred at various circumstances. Therefore, several controversies encountered with his liberal religious interpretations.

However, he seems as an educational maestro. His dream was the social renaissance by providing proper education as a lethal weapon against all social ill – will. He strived for the communal harmony and religious amity for the successful coexistence with peace and tranquility among people.

He was a perfect comparative religious scholar in defensive mode of expression. He defended and justified the applicability and necessity of Islamic sacred principles when they used as an element for the shoddy allegation against Islam with misquotation and misinterpretation. He is the first Muslim scholar, made an interpretation of Bible. In that work, he compared the Muslim and Christian doctrines with the suitable explanation and interpretation from both religions. His dreams of peaceful coexistence with Hindu and Muslim were based on the mutual benefit of development in every walks of the life. His praise worthy deeds mutters the successful vitality, conveys to generations.

Life Sketch

Sir Seyyid Ahmad Khan was born in Delhi on 1817 October 17 as a son of scholar Sūfi sage Mir Muthaqi and Azīzunīsa. His predecessors were migrated from Hirath, Iran in the time of Akbar or Shahjahan. He had a Sūfi Scholastic legacy. He brought up under the guidelines of his grandfather Kwaja Farīdudhīn Khan and mother Azīzunīsa. His father was a Sūfi, lived abandon from the worldly motives and public life. His mother seems the most influenced person in his life. She was the eldest daughter of Kwaja Farīdudhīn and the first teacher of his elementary education of Qurān , Arabic and Persian language.

Before 18 years old his formal education ended. In 1838, his father Mir Muthaqi passed away. He compelled to suit a job for livelihood. Thus he opted to Judicial service. In 1841, he became a muná¹£if in the court.  He went to Agra for the job, from there he completed his religious education in 8 years. He was enumerated in Madrasathul RahÄ«miyya while he was on duty and learned Qurān ic interpretation, HadÄ«th, jurisprudence and basics of Jurisprudence under the renowned scholars.

In 1855 he was appointed as a Sadre Amīn of Bijnur. He was popular among masses by his justice and will power. However, he was not satisfied with his work. Thus he adopted the writings in leisure time. The rebellion out busted in Bijnur as a part of first freedom struggle in 1857, when he was there. His majority of family members were killed in it.

He was against to kill the European civilians in freedom struggles. This made him an enemy and an element of public hatred of suave patriots and people. Thus, he compelled to move Meerut. His mother couldn’t survive from the savagery of mutiny. She breathed her last in Meerut on 18 November 19 1857. He fed up with the deplorable situations of the nation and planned to emigrate Arabia by facing these diabolic incidents where lost his family. In 1861 his wife died. He had two sons and a daughter. He was a 42 years old man when his wife was passed away. But he never remarried, for he can work for society. 

In 1862, he transferred to Gazipur. The bible interpretation, Tabayyinul Kalám published from there and triggered off for his educational mission. In 1863, he established scientific society with some friends to introduce new surges of science cope with European counterparts.

The Urdu rendering of English published science, mathematics and historical works, was the purpose of this institution. They dreamt to make learn Indians, science in their mother tongue.  However, this idea twisted after some time that he understood, it is a tough task to update in science with time by the astonishing growth of science and related subjects within no time lag.

The Queen of Britain proclaimed amnesty for the people who engaged in rebellion of 1857. Sir Seyyid Aḥmed Khan took an advantage to compel Muslims to congratulate the Queen for this sake. It was an idea to make Muslims, friendly with British to save populace from excruciation, for the community’s welfare sake. Meanwhile, he composed the book Asbab e Bagawate Hind to explain the reasons of 1857 rebellion when British began to argue that Muslims defend us as their religion encourage fighting against British government.

He never wanted anything that happens negatively to community. He tried to ensure the peace and tranquility. But, the anti-Urdu protest collapsed his mission. He believed that the work in unison is the panacea to make India independent. But the protest made all his efforts in topsy-turvy as Hindus and Muslims began to fight in internecine hostilities. The origin of aggressive protest was from British oriented syllabus books that taught in British schools. The majority of students were Hindus. They grew up by the poison of anti-Muslim prejudice and nepotistic ideologies. It leads to the anti-Urdu protests.

This incident made him to revitalize and revamp educational concepts. His aim was a fruitful consequence of education with the empowerment of society. Thus, it was necessary to be familiar with prevailing educational patterns to promote the positive waves towards British by keeping empathy with them. Therefore, he went to England to evaluate the educational systems besides the deep study of Christian scriptures due to the overwhelming influence of Christian missionaries in India, to become a bulwark against Christianity, to survive community from the thorns of schism.

Nevertheless, some political and religious perspectives made him a disgusted object of hatred. The traditional orthodox scholars were proclaimed him as kāfir or murthad, a believer who lost the faith. There have been fatwas to kill him by his controversial stands over Islamic principles.

In 1898 March 27, a man strived day in and day out for the welfare of society, to defend the Islam and highlight the comparative, humanitarian perspectives of Islam, came to close. He couldn’t complete the book that explains the realities behind the marriages of prophet (PBUH) as a response to Christian fanatics.


Sir Seyyid Ahmad khan was a multi-faceted personality. He could work for education and community having a true-blue Muslim and proud to be pursue and practice the very tenets of ideology. Thus he was keen to evaluate the negative sentiments that arise against Muslim community. He could respond with same element of writing against the Christian and Hindu fanatic’s works that arouse the vengeance and loath to Islam and its votives. The bible interpretation was made to that purpose to make them clear, the core  and  pure  tenets  of Islamic  ideology  as   a   religion promotes social welfare, communal harmony and religious amity not for extremist terrorist, nepotistic and jingoistic principles based on an internecine hostilities.

Christian missionaries were active in India even before 1857 and government helped them giving the right for propagation of Christianity. Muslim scholars were used to engage in debates with missionaries. This encouraged Sir Seyyid Aḥmed Khan to defend Islam from Christianity clarifying the truth full and fallacious arguments to discern from truth. He could understand the necessity of Christian related knowledge to defend them with their own ideology. He collected books related to Christians and their concepts of religion. He orchestrated for the intellectual crusades against Christianity. He appointed a Jew scholar to teach him Hebrew and collected the Qurān and Hadīth statements that testify his arguments.

He made an immense efforts to promote the education , cultural  standards and social life of the  Muslim  community  in  India  in  order  to  attain  with western standards as well  as  with the  economic  and  intellectual  development cope with Hindu community keeping a neck and neck positions in all fields.

As an unique work, he completed the interpretation of bible, named Tabayyinul Kalām FÄ« ThafsÄ«r al Tawrāth Wal InjÄ«lalā Millath al Islam(theological clarification on the subject of the exegesis of the old and new testament destined to the community of Islam) with English and Urdu interpretation. In 1862, first part appeared with an introduction to the subject. In 1864, second part with an introduction to the old testament  in general  and  book  of  genesis  in  particular with commentary on Genesis 1-11 has been published. Part three with  a commentary on Mathew 1-5 appeared in 1865.He depicted the original Hebrew version of bible and its translation in English and Urdu along with its Interpretation was the systematic alignment of his work . This helped people to evaluate the infallibility and beauty of Islam and fallacious aspects of Christianity.

His journey to England was also in search of books of Christians to respond the William Magis book life of Mehmet. He depended upon this book as a response against Christian missionary.

He became a bulwark against Christianity to penetrate the sacred principles of Islam. He defended the negative arguments to denigrate Islam from governments and western scholars, successfully.

He composed Khutabāt, a book to propound the history of Islam as a response to William Moore. In this book he never criticized the Christianity, Bible or Jesus Christ but he described the Islam and prophet in Islam with a rational analysis.

The book Khutubāt is written as systematic speech. Contents are well versed with the mode of an eloquent spell binding. First speech, he describes the history of Arabs, geography and Arabs as off springs of Ismail and clarifies with the evidences from Old Testament. Second speech, depicts the social life of Arabia before Islam. Third speech, propound the religion of that time, life system and social customs. Fourth speech moots the characteristics of Islam and its history and praises of Islam from Christian writers. Fifth speech, analyze the basics of Islam and HadÄ«th, history of HadÄ«th compilation and jurisprudence. Sixth speech, draw the details related to HadÄ«th. Seventh speech, evaluate the pattern of Qurān revelation. Eighth speech provides the description of Torah related to Ka’aba. Ninth speech is based on the history of Prophet (PBUH) and his sacred lineage. Tenth speech gives the accounts of prophet in bible and Torah. In eleventh, it mentions the Isrā and MiÊ¿rāj. Twelfth speech, draw attention to the childhood of prophet with first part of Bible.

He tried to encompass the Hindus and Muslims in unison as he believed that unity is the strength to oust the British from the nation. But, anti-Urdu protest challenged his dream. He worked for the welfare of the society and integration of Indians along with defending the overwhelming influence of Christian missionaries under the connivance of British government.


His works can be classified as three types related to history, politics ,religion and law.


Āthāru Ṣanādīd

Silsilathul Mulk

Tārīkh-e Bijnur

Politics and Religion

Asbab-e Bagawat-e Hind.

History of Bijnur.

Jilāʿlil kulūb ba Alkrill Mahbūb.

Tuhfay-e- Hason.

Tanne Sunna Varadde Bida.

  • Tabayynul Kalām.
  • Ṭaʿām Ahle Kitāb.
  • Kutubāt.
    • TafsÄ«rul Qurān .

    • TarqÄ«nfe Qissa Aá¹£habul Kahf VaraqÄ«m.

    • Aduaval Ijaza.

    • TafsÄ«rfe UlÅ«mi TafsÄ«r.

    • Law
    • Inthiqabal Akhawain.
    • Acts 10.114.15.

    • The descriptions of comparative oriented work have been mentioned earlier


    • Mamburam Thangal was a versatile scholar, political acumen, SÅ«fi saint, freedom fighter, social reformer and revivalist, recognize as the most respected person in Kerala, the southern strip of Indian subcontinent. He was an exemplary personality in religious and political perceptions and a prominent leader who gird’s up his loin to oust the British suzerainty. He fought against British in several battles. His presence enticed people to join anti-British struggles for the ultimate emancipation from the discrimination and bondage of British colonial tyranny.

    • His was a far famed SÅ«fi saint who used to heel people mentally without reckoning their religion, caste or creed. His religious and political perception bolstered community from the social and cultural ill-will .He strived for unity between masses. The stupendous populace was deployed behind him for the freedom struggle. As a consequence he exists in people with imprinting memories even after his physical extinction.

    • Life sketch

    • Sayyid Alavi MouladhavÄ«la alias Mamburam Thangal was born in a SÅ«fi scholastic family on 1752, December, 24 Saturday night as a son of Muḥammed bin Sahal MouladhavÄ«la and Fathima, in TarÄ«m, Yeman. His parents were passed away in infancy and brought up under the sister of his mother, Sayyid HamÄ«da BÄ«vi. She taught him religious and moral principles.

      He was a sort of good character and well behaviour. He was well versed in Arabic and made holy Qurān in heart in childhood. He could know his uncle and some of his family members migrated to Kerala for the propagation of Islam. It encouraged him to follow their path to Kerala. He confirmed the permission from his surrogate mother to migrate Kerala.

      He boarded from Shahar Mullaka for sail and reached in Kerala at Kozhikode on February 8, 1768. His uncle Sayyid Jifri was passed away before his arrival. He took shelter in the house of Sayyid Jifri, another family member.

    • He introduced him to natives. The very next day they went to Mamburam to pay homage to the tomb of his uncle and from there he met his family members. Jifri Thangal introduced him to natives of Mamburam and appointed as a leader for their didactic and social affairs. Thereafter, Jifri Thangal returned to Calicut where he served as Qazi, the supreme leader of Muslims in didactic issues.

      Mamburam was a smiling country side near Kadalundi River. The arrival of Mamburam Thangal made it famous as an asylum to the needy of society, to get rid of their problems. Thus he became famous as Mamburam Thangal, a sage located in Mamburam.

      He married Fāthima, daughter of Jifri Thangal, a Sūfi saint and an elite of Mamburam in AH 1183, Rabīʿul Avval. His father in law was predicted that the marriage of his daughter should be with a man who will come from Tarīm when he was alive. Thus his marriage ceremony was conducted after the confirmation that he is the man who predicted his father in law under the aegis of the Jamāluddīn Maqdūm, the Qazi and the nobles of native place.

      He had two daughters in Fāthima. The Sharīfa was the eldest daughter. She died in childhood and second daughter was christened with same nomenclature. She was renowned as Kunji Beevi and espoused by Seyyid Alavi bin Abdul Jifri.

      After the demise of first wife he married the daughter of Quilandi Ambukkantakath Seyyid Abūbakar Madani, renowned scholar and writer, Fāthima. Seyyid Fasal Pookoya Thangal, a man, chip of his old block, born in this spousage. In his 50, he married again a sister of Cheroor martyr Muhyuddīn, Aysha from Tanūr. His fourth wife Swāliha hails from Dily, in Timora island of Indonesian archipelago.

    • She had paid homage and mourned in Mamburam as a widow of Mamburam Thangal for the fulfillment of her Iddha.

      The son shed the light of renaissance came to extinction by the old age diseases and wound in his thigh. He suffered a gunshot wound in thigh from Cheroor battle. He never informed anyone on his wound nor cures or heals it. It became lethal. After some time it was diagnosed by a doctor and prescribed medicines to cure. However, it had been ravaged the health and an expected tragedy, he breathed his last in February 25, 1844, in the age of 94. There had been 77years left from his sojourn to Kerala.

    • Comparative Analysis

    • Mamburam Thangal admonished to ensemble the Hindus and Muslims and work in unison with communal harmony and religious amity to obtain the cherished dream of independence from the tyranny of British colonial government. They stemmed the power with the heinous policy of divide and rule between masses. They were successful in the case of north Indian provinces by injecting the communalism and sectarianism to the restless minds to invoke them to tenacious internecine hostilities and made them impotent and failure without the unanimous upheaval that will threw away colonial administration.

      He conceived the inevitability of united alliance of Hindus and Muslims for the annihilation of British cannibalism. He figured out to integrate the people under a single platform to defend the common enemy of both sides. The spiritual entity along with political statecraft made him an icon of indomitable will and vigour to deploy the people against British.

      His relations to Hindus and other religious people, highlighted for his comparative significance. He could attract masses from different religion, caste and clan to mental healing with his spiritual experience. The influences of Mamburam Thangal, to ensure the religious amity made the British idea of divide and rule in futile.

      He was engaged to protect the Muslim entity when the Muslim community succumbed to stiff and decisive series of struggles, upheaval and resistances were they hard to manure for religious development through the ominous situations. He could serve the community and society with timely interferences.

      The pristine religious harmony was extirpated by the advent of the colonial power. Hindu and Muslim relations changed to the deadliest enmity. The land lord and tenant systems deteriorated the frenzy situation. The brotherhood and humanitarianism touched its nadir under colonial rule.

      Mamburam Thangal realized the inward emotions of the society. He convinced the people, inevitability of the religious harmony and tolerance and warned the tragic outcome of disintegration and schism. He promoted to work in unison for the independence. He was successful to join the people each other with peace and tranquility.

    • It is an open testimony of his religious intolerance that his steward was Hindu elite, named Kondu Nair. He worked with him until his last. He took cared the affairs of Mamburam Thangal and celebrated a friendly relation with him.

      He never promoted Jihad to non-believers but to fight against the whims, appetites, bad habits and practices. He engaged to purify the rituals, practices, customs and mores while maintained a good relation to Hindus. He admonished to strictly pursue with the tenets of Islam and avoid malpractice and hang on the sacred principles of Islam.

      His ultimate aim was to work with Hindu until something happen negative to Islamic perspectives. He ensured good relations with Hindus and promoted to fight against British. He used to join the Hindu marriage functions and give money to Hindu bereaved and have-nots. In vice-versa, they used to visit him for various problems and he used to receive them with utmost respect and reverence and leave them with satisfaction by giving suitable solutions for their problems.

      Even at present, numerous non-believers and pagans used to visit his tomb to pray for their problems and witness the spiritual healings. These all leaves his successful vitality to bridge between Hindu and Muslims to live in harmony with peace and tranquility.

      He figured out for the Dalit empowerment as his family followed for the development of Dalit life system in social, cultural, political and educational scenario. He played a key role as an arbitrator between the Hindus for various occasions. He used to visit the annual celebration of Dalit as a caste while he was stark antagonized to the degraded caste system. Hindu fanatics were kept away from Dalit ceremonies for they were high castes while he presented to give compliments to Dalit people in their celebrations. He conveyed an incomparable policy of humanitarianism and egalitarianism, by giving equal status to human beings leaving the clan, creed, caste, lineage or pedigree to beyond the barriers.

    • Saiful Bathār

    • Saiful Baá¹­hār is the famous work of MambuaramThangal. He composed this work to promote and encourage people to fight against British. In this work, he reiterates the moral obligation of Muslims to fight against colonial power to save the country and its inevitability to do so. For that sake, he orchestrated this work with Islamic perspectives and perceptions of jurisprudence that promote the struggle against enemy.

      This work derives on the basis of eight questions and its answers. Through this pattern of systematic questionnaire and responses, Mamburam Thangal analyze the Islamic jurisprudence and its various provisions over the issues. He clarifies with evidences that the fight is the obligation of a Muslim to get rid of political slavery. He correlated and conforms his arguments through the Qurān ic verses, jurisprudence, Hadīth and moral stories of Ṣaḥāba,the followers of Prophet(PBUH).Thus he encouraged Muslims to fight against British as a religious duty. He send the manuscripts of Saiful Baṭhār to various regions to convey the message of clarion against colonial administration as it positively affected and people gird up their loins to fight back against British colonial power. This work played a key role to assemble the people to fight against colonial government.

    • Through this scholarly work he was successful as his intention to alter the negative emotions towards British. The colonial personnel were aware of the popularity of this work. They triggered off a mission to find and eradicate the book from people by tearing the manuscripts from every nook and corner of society to ensure it is out of reach to public. They raided houses in search of Saiful Baá¹­hār and numerous books fired when they spotted it. The work meant a lethal weapon, exposes the scholarship, spirituality and patriotic entity of the reverent author.

    • Shaikh ZainudhÄ«n bin ZainudhÄ«n bin Aḥammed Ma’bari alias ZainudhÄ«n MaqdÅ«m II have an ambiguous date of birth and place with various arguments. It is believed, he was born in Chombal near Mahi on AH 938. There is no sufficient detail on his wife, children and life sketch.

      His demise is also a controversial subject to correlate with chronology. The majority of annalists, believe he may have died in AH 991 or AH 978 according to their points of view. However it is precise that his magnum opus Thuhfathul MujāhidÄ«n expounds the comparative history of Portuguese colonization until 1583. Though, his date of birth and death lies on a complete obscurity. Albeit, it is considered that he was buried in the mosque of Kunjipalli. 

    • Mohammed Gazzāli MaqdÅ«m, the eldest son of ZainudhÄ«n MaqdÅ«m Al-KabÄ«r, popularly known as ZainudhÄ«n MaqdÅ«mI, married form Valiyakath Karakathil, an elite and scholastic family of Chombal. ZainudhÄ«n MaqdÅ«m was born in this spousage.

      Shaikh Zainudhīn Maqdūm II is a far famed scholar, philosopher, theologian and well known by his magnum opus which instigated the unending series of revolts against Portuguese supremacy in Kerala and other works related to literature and Islamic jurisprudence. He is an icon of spirituality and patriotism, sparked the spirits of Muslims to wage the wars against the Portuguese.

    • Works

    • He contributed several works in literature and Islamic jurisprudence besides politics. He composed the Qurrat al-Ê¿Ain, describing the perspectives of Jurisprudence and made an interpretation to this work named “Fathul MuÊ¿Ä«n” as his masterpiece in jurisprudence. This work considered an authentic work in ShāfiÊ¿Ä«te School of religion. Several commentaries, interpretations and translations to various languages have been made over this work. It is a scholastic stuff of jurisprudence as it teaches in several educational institutions of Egypt, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia and Srilanka besides India.

      His work, al Manḥaj al-Wāḍiḥ and Ahkām al-Nikāḥ propound the Islamic perceptions of marriage and duties of husband and wife. Al-Fathāva al-Ḥindiyya, al Javāḥir fÄ« UqÅ«bāthi Aḥlil Kabāir are other works he made. He composed several poems as he used to write poems on walls as mural paintings with a mixture of Malayalam and Arabic words.Tuhfah al-MujāhidÄ«n is the magnum opus of the ZainudhÄ«n MakhdÅ«m II with an unique comparative analysis.

    • Tuhfah al-MujāhidÄ«n
    • Tuhfah al-MujāhidÄ«n was dedicated to Ê¿Ä€dil Shah, Sultan of Bijapur for spearheading the battles against Portuguese of Goa. It contains the important history of Kerala from AH 915 to 998. It is an authentic historical work describing the regional struggles of Muslim community for the honourable survival and existence. The work is divided into four sections.

      First section was composed by the citation from the Holy Qurānic verses and compilations of Sunnah and Hadīth. Through this treatise he promoted the Jihād, the holy war against colonial power. It exposes the glory and graces over the martyrdom of warriors in the religion. He encouraged people for the ultimate sacrifice on the behalf of community and religion.

      Second section is dealing with the emergence and widespread of Islam in Malabar. Section three highlights certain customs and rituals of Hindus in Malabar. He pointed to their traditional loyalty towards rulers and the heinous, degraded caste systems along with their specified caste duties. It criticizes the idea of untouchablity of lower castes to aristocrats and describes the marriage systems and methods of property distribution in Hindu family. It derives through the analytic description of religious backed superstitions on rituals and customs with their social life. He ventured to evaluate the arrival of Islam as emancipation from the discrimination of loathsome, moth eaten customs and social stratification.

    • The chronological order of descriptions of anti-colonial struggles has been recorded by the thorough grasp and evaluation with their causes. The ultimate aim of this work was to ensemble masses under the traditional suzerainty of rulers like Zamorin, not to make an Islamic state based on the Sharia, tenets of Islam. He taught the community as a theologian and historian that Jihād could be materialized if they pursued the defence against colonial intruders to save the nations from political thugs and dacoits. The historical consciousness was articulated by the motivation to encourage people to resist against atrocities and tyranny of Portuguese colonial invaders. This work influenced in people with much acceptance. It has been translated in to thirty six languages including several Indian languages. He served the community with his spiritual, political and linguistic abilities as a SÅ«fi imbued with patriotism.




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