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Democracy: From an Eagle Eyed Point of View

On the concept of differences, feminists and multiculturalists contended that treating all differences in a culturally plural society entails using the dominant group's culture as the norm.

By Everybody’s for democracy in principle. It’s only in practice that the thing gives rise to stiff objections. —Noam Chomsky
Democracy, according to the former quote is nothing more than pragmatic. But unlike this in the ancient period, numerous literary and philosophical critiques of democracy have been incorporated into a modern liberal democracy. Aristotle was a mild critic, who disapproved of the power granted to the poor by increasing democracy. Plato was an opponent of democracy, advocating for a form of government decided to the extent of our abilities.
  By definition, democracy means "rule by people". But what do "rule" and "people" stand for? How is the proposition “by” referred to? Why does this “by” happen? Such naturalistic scepticism is emanating from the views on the nature, purpose, and extent of democratic rule.
As a result, democracy is an adjective concept. because of the infinite "types" ‘of democracies, like liberal, social, radical, associational, procedural, substantive, etc. What is the concept of democracy, despite such crude categorization and complicated differences imposed by politicians? A democratic country refers to a government based on political equality. Being a regime based on political equality, no one’s belief or opinion poses a major influence on others'. Hence the principle of "one person, one vote." At another level, it is the equal moral worth of individuals, and against any exclusion, the meaning of “the people” is relevant. By using two words, two things can be achieved as citizens and adults. As far as the United States is concerned, all men, whether educated, white, or black, were recognized as citizens with the right to vote and contest. in parallel to this, Asian and African colonies see democracy as an anti colonist and countries like India see people as having the right of self-government 
Direct & Indirect Democracy
As a result, the accountability of those in power continues to distinguish democracy from authoritarianism. At the extent of authoritarianism, decision made by authority is imposed on “the people “without 
their consent. While at the democratic level, the ultimate power lies with the people. Often, consent is required for the legitimacy of authority. An authority is legitimately when its norms or acts are done by the subject. According to max Webber, legitimacy can be bought as there, namely, cultural, traditional and charismatic. Nonetheless, there is another out-of-the-box democratic legitimacy, namely, that people's consent is required for legitimate government. A sensible question of ‘consent is hanging around the neck: how is participation desirable?
In a direct democracy, there is a high degree of participation through the collective decision-making of mass meetings on almost all major issues. I.e People rule themselves in direct democracy. Its origins are strongly attached to the Athenian model of democracy. Direct democracy still exists in modern India like what we are calling grama panchayath which has a fever impact in comparison with indirect democracy  
But in an indirect democracy or representative democracy, policymakers are elected by the people. The elected people are working as links between people. But such representation is either described, symbolic, or substantive. as Hanna F Perkins's Seminal Treatise on the concept of representation (1967) put forward. Descriptive representation is similar to the represented's social or cultural identity. In contrast, the identity of repute is speculative, whereas symbolic representation occurs when the representative acts or contributes on behalf of the represented. Substantive representation occurs when the representative serves the interests of the represented, such as a political agenda or ideology. 
Both concepts are emerging as a preview of an open society with room for all sounds. But the concept of an open society is required under freedom of expression. However, such freedom of expression does not guarantee that all voices are heard. Do they have equal influence in decision-making? Or does the right of forest dwellers are preserved under the equality concept?to make democratic machines effective, such question is to be addressed 

Equality. and Representation & Participation

With chronological traces of democracy, we can conclude that the democratic movement has aimed at the removal of anarchist rulers or dynastic rule. From direct democracy to indirect democracy, the elimination of differences by emancipation of equality gives more importance to the affirmation of equal moral worth for individuals.

On the concept of differences, feminists and multiculturalists contended that treating all differences in a culturally plural society entails using the dominant group's culture as the norm. Countries like India, which is itself multi-religious and multi-cultural, are in a relationship of dominance and subordination with each other. However, a country's laws and practices reflect the cultural bias of its majority.

Professor Iris Marion Young of the University of Chicago puts a viewpoint as democracy evolves equality in setting the standard too. According to him, asserting the value of group difference provides a standard point to both point out that the norm presented as universal is culturally specific and criticize them by presenting an alternative for forest dwellers, comparing what they see as development to what they see as industrialization from 1.0 to 4.0. Their harmonious co-existence is linked with the environment, but the industrial revolution is prone to what they consider as development or co-existence. tribal community, insisting on their right to use natural resources in a way that is beneficial to their community and, yes, to their culture. By doing so, they completely refute the notion of a single or equal mode of development.
Will Kymlicka, seeing such a tragedy of development, recommended self-governance rights for indigenous or tribal communities and cultural rights for ethnic groups. Right after the government introduced the Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Forest Dwellers ( Recognition of Forest Rights) bill 2005, which provides that forest dwellers have the same right to the forest and mineral resources.
By nature, indirect democracy is representative. But what exactly does the noun representative represent? Are delegates and representatives the same? Referring to John Stuart Mill, both are not the same, in reason that if they are the same they would act according to the electorate. Weirdly, he differs as a representative from delegates, as he is represented. He would act according to people and their deeds must be free from their judgment. But some questions are to be answered like what kind of control people, as they are electors hope to have over their representatives?
There is another meaning for representation as people elect a party through a given election system to direct the government and carry out specific policies. But in most countries, political parties are elected and they act for the sake of the people. The onus of welfare lies upon them. In countries like India, political parties are putting forward their ideologies as a playmaker in elections, as we saw in the case of INC which repeatedly highlighted its ideology in its Bharat Jodo Yathra. In contrast to this, there are also some political parties which constitute themselves as the political elite and are often deliberately vague about their ideologies.  

Elections are frequently regarded as a component of a representative system. In most countries, representation is either first-past-the-post Past The Post(FPTP/FPP) or a proportional system. According to the former, the victorious party that forms the government does not always receive a majority of votes; thus, there is a clear mismatch between the number of votes and seats shared. Obviously, the election, which is the mechanism for representation, is inadequate. 
There is a protective democracy to constrain the abuse of power. So to prevent such misuse, the involvement of citizens is required. Open government, such as the RTA Act, is intended to combat corruption, bureaucracy, and lack of accountability.

Critics of Democracy Phenomenon 
In recent days, there has been a call for strong political leadership, or even a dictator, in Sri Lanka to ensure economic stability. There is a widespread belief that democracy is a luxury for “has “ and those “have not” cannot afford it. Lee's Thesis refers to such opulent democracy.
The Lee Thesis can be traced back to Lee Kuan Yew, Singapore's former president who believed in the denial of fundamental rights. 
In such a sense it was a notion that slows the growth of democracy among “has not”
Amartya Sen contends with Lee's Thesis and he continuously held that this thesis has no empirical evidence, he further added that democracy has both instrumental and constructive role play in shaping development. Instrumental it plays in the presence of political and civil rights later it implies allowing the conceptualization of economic needs among citizens
Lack of accountability in certain countries is also a major facing problem. such factors play a major role in making a country aristocratic. countries like India, as we mentioned above, have an applauded step to prevent such a lack of accountability by enabling the RTI Act, this government is responsible to people, in contrast to others.


as a result, the absence of equality and effective representation is prone to our democratic rule. Nonetheless, the recent leap by the Indian government as it enacted Migrant Voter System is unquestionable. By this "By" in "by the people" make some sense as enshrined in our constitution. 
furthermore, issues like corruption and exploitation of power are yet to be addressed globally. India had made a step against such factors by enacting Lok Ayuktha and Lok Niti to make the government free from corruption. however, it must have to be more effective than the present. 




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